by Smrutishree Lenka, Krushna Chandra Gouda, Rani Devi & C. M. Joseph
Better understanding on the phases of Indian summer monsoon i.e., onset, progress and withdrawal helps in the decision making and proper management. In this paper, date of onset of monsoon (DOM) and date of withdrawal of monsoon (DWM) is estimated using the long-term daily rainfall data observed by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and cumulative rainfall anomaly concept, as the onset/withdrawal represents a signature of rainfall transition. The results are promising with a better match between the estimated DOM and IMD announced DOM over Kerala. The length of monsoon season variability is also analysed. The concept of onset at grid point (OGP) in India is also evaluated and progress of monsoon is monitored by considering the latitudinal variation, persistent & strength of rainfall in the continental India. The zonal classification of the spread of monsoon in terms of the intensity and time (duration) is presented. Zone wise pentad analysis of onset clearly signifies the progress of monsoon and its dependency on various physical factors like SST, OLR, TTG, ITCZ, Energy budget and wind circulation. The impact of ENSO on the OGP is brought out, which clearly shows that DOM, DWM and progress is almost influenced by the largescale processes. The intensity–duration–frequency analysis quantified the actual ISM length, seasonal rainfall and rainy days at all locations in India. This study will help modellers in better understanding of onset and progress of monsoon dynamics in India and can be integrated with NWP for the accurate and advance prediction of DOM and the progress.