by Smrutishree Lenka, Rani Devi, Chennemkeril Mathew Joseph & Krushna Chandra Gouda
There are several important large-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) which have significant impact on global weather and climate system. This article reviews the mechanism and dynamics of ENSO, MJO, and IOD processes and their impact on global and regional weather and climate particularly the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Generally, these processes are coupled ocean–atmosphere phenomenon and associated dynamics control the global weather and climate system. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the central and equatorial pacific region respectively results the warm (El Niño) and cold (La Niña) events and it has strong impacts globally. Similarly, MJO is a dominant phase of intra-seasonal variability in the tropical region and also has significant impacts on the global system like strong wind, convective waves, extreme rainfall, cyclones, and ENSO. The IOD is often termed as the counterpart of pacific El Niño and La Niña in Indian Ocean which mainly measures the SST gradient between Arabian Sea and the eastern Indian Ocean. IOD also linked to ENSO and the shifting warm/cool pool results in the summer monsoon rainfall variability in the India Ocean as well as continental Indian region. All these phenomena have direct impact on the Indian monsoon circulation system, so in this work, these impacts are quantified using the India Meteorological Department (IMD) observed rainfall data over Indian subcontinent as a case study. This work also provides the review of the studies using observation and modelling to understand the dynamics of all the three processes. This review and analysis work will help in understanding the process feedback on the regional rainfall distribution and there is a need of near-future modelling research on these processes and their impacts on weather and climate system and associated sectors.