by Rani Devi, K. C. Gouda & S. Lenka
The extreme temperature events are a concern in recent years due to climate variability particularly in India as there is an increase in the temperature intensity, frequency, and duration. This study represents stationary temperature-duration-frequency (TDF) analysis over two mega cities in India Delhi (north) and Bengaluru (south) using the daily maximum temperatures at meteorological stations for the period 1969–2016 observed by India Meteorological Department (IMD).The interannual variability of maximum temperature and the maximum daily recorded value indicates the increasing trend in both the cities. The study investigates the extreme analysis of the maximum temperature using two distributions, i.e., Gumbel’s Extreme Value Type 1 (GEVT) and Log Pearson Type III (LPT), for return periods 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years at both the locations and the positive temporal trend is observed. The TDF curves were build using annual maximum temperature values for total 8 durations (different days) of 48 years analyzed and results show the increasing trend of maximum temperature at lower duration and high return period values. The TDF is also used for prediction of the maximum temperature for the 2 hottest years in India, i.e., 2012 and 2015, and it is comparable with the observed maximum temperature. Similarly, the predictions for 11 years, i.e. 2006 to 2016, over both the cities are simulated using both the GEVT-I and LPT-III and the models have better potential skill in predicting the extreme maximum temperature. These results can be useful for the sectors like health, energy, agriculture, urban management, and ecology management and can help the policy decision makers and disaster managers in the mitigation and adoption steps to face the extreme temperature disaster at city scale.