Annual and seasonal trends in actual evapotranspiration over different meteorological sub-divisions in India using satellite-based data
by Raghavendra Prasad K, Kantha Rao Bhimala, G. K. Patra, Himesh S & Sheshakumar Goroshi
The present study analyzed the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and its components [transpiration (Et), bare soil evaporation (Eb), interception loss (Ei), and open water evaporation (Eo)] data to study the long-term (1980–2018) trends over different meteorological sub-divisions in India. Quantitatively, all India average (µ) annual ETa is 573 mm (standard deviation (σ) = 29 mm), where Et (µ = 456 mm; σ = 30 mm) plays a major role compared to other evaporation processes like Eb (µ = 56 mm; σ = 9 mm), Ei (µ = 34 mm; σ = 3 mm), and Eo (µ = 27 mm). The Mann–Kendall (MK) test reveals an increasing trend (1.33 mm/yr) in annual ETa due to the rising trend in Et (1.91 mm/yr) and Ei (0.16 mm/yr). The sub-division-wise analysis shows the increasing trend in ETa observed over irrigated regions located in the south, north-west, and foothills of the Himalayas during pre-monsoon (March–May) and monsoon season (June–September). The correlation analysis observed a complex relationship between ETa and climatic factors (rainfall (RF), soil moisture (SM), surface temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), surface net solar radiation (SSR), and wind speed (WS)) during monsoon season such that the water-limited areas have a positive correlation with SM, RH and RF, and negative correlation with WS, T, and SSR, whereas, in energy-limited areas (east India), the ETa showed a positive correlation with SSR and T and negative correlation with RF. The main climatic drivers for the increasing trend of ETa are SM and rainfall over dry regions and SSR and T over densely vegetated regions in India.